Making Live Rock

Discussion in 'Anything DIY Related' started by seank, 6 Jan 2009.

  1. seank

    seank

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    Simply Speaking


    By, Tom Miller


    Reef Propagation Project:


    The Complete Cookbook for Making Live Rock from Cement and Other Types of Rock.


    -Includes How to Grow Great Coralline Algae and Make Live Sand-

    Have you ever wondered if your hobby could support or pay for all of, or maybe more than all of its own expenses? It certainly would be nice if your hobby could at least pay part of its own way. Or, perhaps you would just like to save a small pile of money on the cost of live rock when setting up your next aquarium? You can do this when you learn how to make your own live rock. It isn't hard at all. People often ask me what types of rock can safely be used for making, growing or culturing their own live rock. The next problem many of them have run into in the past is finding some of the types of rock I've recommended. We're going to answer those questions in detail and solve any problems, right here and now! We're going to look at how to find suitable rocks for in-tank live rock aquaculture and how to go about the actual process of culturing or making them into live rock. A lot of the information in this article is on my internet web site. I'll tie it up with the results of some very recent additional curing tests of cement rock and how to cure it best so that it is reef-safe.
    But first, an update on some "current" events. I've gotten several e-mail notes saying that some people can't access my new internet web site at http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hangar/6279. Others are just having a problem contacting me since my new e-mail address is now EZreef@yahoo.com. The problem of connecting with my new web site is most often the misspelling of the word "Hangar". Spell "Hangar" with two "a"s and you should get into the web site. We are still getting some bugs worked out and making improvements which include adding more articles, pictures, comics, letters from readers, tips 'n tricks and more! You can get all the information to set up and care for simple reef aquariums on this web site. You can also get information in the "Raise a Reef" propagation section on growing nearly everything yourself for your next reef aquarium.
    Lately I have been getting more than the usual number of questions from readers who are having problems with not being able to grow nice looking purple and pink coralline algae on the live rock in their reef tanks. We'll also go over how to cure this missing coralline problem in this month's column. I also read a complaint on the internet from an aquarist who had ordered some reef-safe aptaisia-eating Berghia nudibranchs. He claimed to have had quite an ordeal with not getting what he ordered. The packing seemed to be very improper for freezing weather in early March, and the tiny nudibranchs were dead! They hadn't replied to his complaints in over a week! I won't go into the name of the company, but we'll just call them company "A". I will tell of another recent case, also from the internet, where another customer had a problem with a reputable company. The reputable company DID quickly resolve the problem with an order of the same type of nudibranch and the customer is now happy with this other company which we will call company "B". Company "B" also sent a care sheet with the order and company "A" did not. Why can two companies be so different? Who is company "B"? The Aquatic WildLife Company is the company that promptly fixed the problem which resulted in a happy customer! You can get information on The Aquatic WildLife Company in my last three columns. You can check out their web site at http://catalog.aquaticwildlife.com (NO "www") or call them at 423-559-9000.
    This brought to mind an incident in my past where I ordered live rock at a bargain price in December, just before the Christmas shut down. I did not get the type or quality of rock promised in their ad or over the phone. I asked about packing and heat packs to keep the rock warm since it was getting down to about 20 degrees here in mountainous Utah at night. They assured me that there would be no problem and charged extra for heat packs. The order came with no adequate insulation (no Styrofoam!) and no heat packs. Just plastic bags and a few wet newspapers wrapped around the rocks, then stuffed in smaller and weaker than normal boxes. A couple of the boxes were leaking just a little. Some life did survive though. Needless to say, I never will order $1.99 bargain live rock from them again. I would have been much better off going to one of the local stores and cherry picking the nicest rocks for full retail price or just cutting a deal with a store owner to buy in bulk through them. Store owners tend to have an established relationship with the wholesalers they work with and know what they are getting.
    One more thing to watch out for is unscrupulous people or companies posing as non-profit organizations or institutions. Yes, it can happen in any business, including the saltwater or reef business. This is nothing new, and unfortunately I'm sure it will always be with us. Just watch out for it and verify non-profit status before getting that feel-good feeling that you are doing good by supporting a good cause. It is easy for someone to throw out a few free "cookies" and good information (which looks good to you and me at first glance) in order to ask for donations or sell for higher prices to support a so called "do-good organization". I have only been able to verify one genuine non-profit organization in the reef hobby, and that is The Breeder's Registry. If you can verify any other, please let me know so I can pass it on to the readers. You can verify non-profit status by getting the non-profit organization to fax, e-mail or mail to you a copy of their IRS non-profit organization number and registration. Also ask for a copy of their most recent financial report. If they change the subject or postpone sending either of these verifications, avoid that company/institution altogether. If they do send it to you, be sure to verify with the IRS that it actually IS genuine.
     
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  3. seank

    seank Thread Starter

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    Land Based Rocks that can be used to Culture Live Rock.

    Now back to the main topic. You can make a lot of your own saltwater aquarium rock or reef aquarium live rock by adding plain whitish-beige aragonite rock, calcite rock or other reef safe rocks to your aquarium. It is a good idea to use ample amounts of rock in reef aquariums, and also in fish-only aquariums. This gives the fish more territory and hiding places. A tank devoid of rock is not as homey to the fish. A good combination of irregular rocky formations with some open space in between is appealing to the observer as well. Coralline algae, other reef life and good bacteria from the existing live rock in your reef tank will slowly spread to the new bare rocks. You can easily grow great looking fully coralline encrusted pieces of live rock in about four to eight months, but occasionally faster. Currently land based rocks that were long ago formed in the ocean are a good choice of rock to use. Some people use rocks like limestone in the form of calcite, or aragonite rocks from old reefs that are now above sea level. The younger it is geologically, the better it is, say perhaps under a million years old. True aragonite is the youngest reef generated rock or sand. Tufa rock also works well and is available at many aquarium stores now. It is a whitish-beige lightweight porous calcium carbonate, magnesium and mineral rock formed on land from geothermal activity. Some people also use landscaping limestone to culture live rock.
    Some, but not all, lava rocks work well for live rock culture. Be cautious though, some types of lava rock just leach too many minerals and grow cyanobacteria (red, green and other colored slime algae) and hair algae very readily. If you've seen other people using a particular type of lava successfully without problems, then you're probably safe using the type they are using too.
    The easiest calcium based rock to find for making your own live rock is now becoming available in most aquarium stores everywhere. CaribSea now offers boxed "Reef Rocks" in 50 lb lots. You can get them through stores that carry the various CaribSea aragonite sands. If your favorite reef store doesn't have these dry reef-ready rocks in yet, just tell them about it and they can get them from their wholesale supplier of CaribSea products. Ask them to order CaribSea Reef Rocks, product #00350. These whitish-beige rocks are from the Carribean basin and were formed only 120,000 years ago on coral reefs. It was aragonite back then, but over time the calcium carbonate re-crystalizes and is now "fossilized" aragonite, or calcite. I used a bunch of this CaribSea Reef Rock along with some cement rock as the major portion of my daughter's 75-gallon reef aquarium - formerly her 55-gallon reef pictured in Marine Fish Monthly pg 13 Jan 1997 and pg 12 Sept 1997. It is shown as a 75-gallon on pg 14 Mar 1998. In the latter picture you can see live rocks made from CaribSea calcite Reef Rocks, Idaho aragonite rocks and homemade cement reef rocks. From these three pictures, you can see how the aquarium changes over a year as the coralline algae grows on these various types of rock. The CaribSea Reef Rocks are well priced, grow coralline algae nicely and look natural! This rock will no doubt become the most popular and most easily accessible dry rock for hobbyists to find and use for aquarium base rock and for culturing their own live rock.
    Some people build the base or main structure for their reef or fish tank from any of the varieties of rock listed above, and then add some nice established cultured live rock or wild live rock or even ocean cultured live rock over parts of it, in many or just a few spots. This live rock from the ocean or from another good reef aquarium provides the "seed" culture for coralline algae, beneficial bacteria, tiny crustaceans (amphipods, decapods and copepods)and other goodies which multiply, spread and grow on and in your new rock also. I have even seeded Idaho aragonite rock with coralline algae in one 20-gallon reef tank with only the coralline on a few snails, hermit crabs and a live sand culture containing some small bits of coralline algae. Of course it took a lot longer to get really good looking live coralline rock with this very conservative seeding method. I prefer to use live rock for the "seed" coralline, NOT live sand with coralline mixed in with it.
    I seeded another live rock and live sand growing tank (55-gallon) with only some home grown live sand and two 2-3 inch pieces of heavily corallined live rock. I put the well corallined rocks directly in the heaviest water flow from a power head. This helps spread the coralline algae spores around the tank and to the new rock faster. This grew nice coralline live rock much faster than the previous tank. Faster water motion in the tank (and across the seed rocks) helps here. Two MaxiJet 1000's work well to keep the water moving well in a 55-gallon live sand and live rock growing tank. These two tanks only had single or double flourescent lights of the Triton and Blue Moon Reef types which are 40 watt standard output. Two to four standard output reef tubes over a 45, 50, 55 or 75-gallon tank is ideal lighting for growing a good tank full of coralline live rock. You might as well grow live sand right in with your live rock at the same time. You need to use either enough live sand or live rock in with the new sand and rock to act as a starter culture to spread worms, amphipods, decapods and copepods along with coralline algae, to multiply and populate the new sand and rock. Of course some coral cuttings can be grown on top of all this in the same tank.
    If you sell or trade the newly grown coralline live rock that you have just raised, you can then replace it with more dry base rock to keep growing more live rock. You will also have coralline algae growing on the inside glass of the tank by this time. If possible do not remove it, since it also provides seed culture in the form of spores, bits and pieces which can help spread coralline algae to the new rocks even faster the second time around. The more coralline algae on your glass and existing rocks, the faster the new rocks tend to grow coralline. Another trick that helps spread coralline algae is to scrub the coralline on the glass or a rock just a little with an abrasive aquarium cleaning pad or tooth brush to create coralline dust that can be blown around and settle on the new rocks to grow. Good water current is helpful. I do not use filter pads nor do I protein skim the tank during this initial phase, or especially when I scrub the coralline to "seed" the tank with coralline. Filter pads and protein skimming can remove spores or fine coralline dust which I want to encourage in the early stage of getting the rocks to start growing coralline algae.
    The only calcium, magnesium or strontium additive I normally use to grow my coralline live rock is CaribSea aragonite sand. The aragonite sand dissolves slowly to provide these while buffering your water just fine on its own. Oolitic aragonite sand from CaribSea or ESV Company can also be used. I normally use no kalkwasser or buffers to culture homegrown live rock. I usually add iodide and a broad spectrum trace element and vitamin supplement such as CombiSan, Reef Plus or Vital Gold twice a week in smaller than recommended doses while growing coralline encrusted live rock. Other trace elements are used by others also. Some aquarists do not even add any other trace elements or iodide other than what the aragonite sand releases as it dissolves.
    Using SeaChem's trio of Reef Plus (trace elements and vitamins), Reef Calcium (organic calcium) and Reef complete (calcium, magnesium and strontium) can speed up the process of coralline growth somewhat. Aragonite sand does release calcium, magnesium, strontium and some other elements too. Calcium and magnesium are especially vital to coralline algae growth. Organic calcium accelerates the growth of coralline algae also. Many people have experienced increased coralline algae growth when using Marc Weiss' Coral Vital.
    Now we come to the two most common causes of poor coralline algae growth. The first cause is low pH and KH (alkalinity). The second common cause of poor coralline growth is the use of excessive herbivores, especially ones that like to eat coralline algae! You can use a supplement like SeaChem's Reef Builder to boost alkalinity and pH a bit and accelerate some cases of slow coralline algae growth. If you decide to use it, I would use smaller conservative doses more often rather than large doses less often. Take the recommended weekly dose and use just 1/4 of that dose twice a week. Others see accelerated coralline algae growth when using balanced calcium/buffer supplements, like ESV's B-Ionic two part calcium supplement. It is also heavy in calcium and magnesium and it raises the alkalinity (KH) of your aquarium water. Be careful not to add too much at any one time.
    Some people also see good results by adding kalkwasser, but if you over do this also, you will then get some negative results as discussed in this column in Dec 1997. If you boost the KH much over 10 - 12 dKH for a long time it could negatively affect your aragonite sand and stop it from readily dissolving to buffer and release calcium. The same precaution applies to using kalkwasser or buffers which can raise the pH and KH too high resulting in precipitation of calcium and magnesium and then aragonite sand failure. More people experience this problem than realize it. I still tend to just stick with the simple aragonite, trace element and iodide combination for a reliable and acceptable coralline algae growth rate. Simple reef aquariums like a HANDY Reef, Merrill Cohen's "Easier than Freshwater Reef" (see my web site) or other simple systems will keep costs and care low.
    Using algae eaters such as tangs, snails, amphipods and copepods can be helpful also. You need to keep the hair algae at bay so the coralline algae can take hold and grow. Small blue legged hermit crabs or scarlet hermit crabs are included by some also. Red legged hermit crabs from the Sea of Cortez, although fairly efficient cleaners, like to eat the faster growing types of soft coralline algae and have been totally or partially excluded from some commercial coralline rock growing systems for this reason. I get letters from people who are adding the above supplements to speed the growth of coralline algae and it still doesn't grow! Too often the mystery of the missing coralline turns out to be the use of too many red legged hermit crabs. This results in the rocks ending up with a dull gray-green look which is easy to identify once you've seen it a few times. I can get better coralline algae growth by simply using only CaribSea aragonite sand and no coralline eaters, than the person who uses all the additives above and is hooked on using coralline eaters. Or if you are in a real hurry to grow good coralline algae, you can get the very fastest growth by eliminating the coralline algae eaters and also adding some of the above supplements.
    (The pictures below illustrate coralline algae growth. The first four pictures lack good growth of pink and purple coralline algae. Why? Low pH? Low KH (alkalinity)? Low calcium? Too many coralline algae eating herbivores?)
    [​IMG][​IMG] (Left) A reef tank with mostly tank-raised live rock which was originally dry bare rock. These rocks are still developing coralline algae. This tank is 6.5 months old in this picture. By this time, the tank-raised live rocks would have normally been fairly purple and pink form good coralline algae growth. Then why the dull grey-green look on the rocks? Even the wild coralline live rocks used in this tank to seed the new rocks with coralline spores are now missing a lot of their own original coralline algae.
    (Right) Closeup of same tank at 20 months of age. Note, a little more purple and pink coralline algae now shows, but the dull gray-green areas on the live rock still dominate. Lot's of live coral helps take attention away from the missing coralline algae in some reef tanks. This tank lacks truly good coralline growth, but it is very clean since it has plenty of algae-eating cleaners.

    [​IMG] This 8 month old reef aquarium shows the same gray-green look on its tank-raised live rock.
    ***
    [​IMG]
    This close-up of a nearly 3 year old reef tank also has a dominant gray-green look on the live rock.
    *****(The reef aquariums above are all dosed with the same top rated additives to provide trace elements, vitamins, calcium, magnesium, strontium, and elevated pH and KH. These are ideal conditions for growing coralline algae! Puzzled??? What else do these reef tanks have in common? They each have a good number of Mexican red leg blue spot hermit crabs which not only help clean the tanks of undesirable algae, but also eat coralline algae. The hermit crab Clibanarius digueti from the Mexico area is a coralline algae eater, and is only one of many varieties of hermit crabs called "red leg hermit crabs". Two of the "red leg" hermit crabs from the Sea of Cortez, AKA Gulf of California, have big appetites for coralline algae, C. digueti is the most common one sold.*****

    [​IMG] This is my own 7 month old 29-gallon reef tank which has 100% tank-raised live rock, all of which is less than the age of the tank (mostly 4-6 months old), and grown in this tank with the exception of one rock. The large mushroom rock (front right)is just over 1.5 months old in this picture! It was started in another tank with stronger lighting and then moved to this tank after the mushroom anemones attached and the rock was not much more than 2 weeks old. When first moved to this tank, this rock had small splotches of pink and purple coralline algae starts all over it, but the rock was still mostly white/beige and greenish looking when moved to this tank. No calcium supplements or buffers were added to this tank. Trace elements in low doses were all that was added to this tank. Calcium, strontium, magnesium, and buffering are provided by the tank-raised live sand made from dry bagged CaribSea Seaflor aragonite Reef Sand. The coralline algae would grow even faster if this tank were receiving the same additives as the 3 reef tanks shown above. This 100% tank-raised reef aquarium has NO red-legged hermit crabs (C. digueti) to impede coralline algae growth by eating it.

    ***


    [​IMG] ABOVE: Valerie Miller's tank-raised "xenia forest", shown about 6 months before this article was written. It has GROWN since this picture! There are four types of xenia shown above in her 75-gallon reef tank. Also note: The large concrete rock is kept nearly clean of coralline algae, looking dull gray-green. Other rocks are lacking in really good coralline growth too, a classic sign that certain hermit crabs are present which eat more coralline than you might like them to. Coralline would normally be quite obvious and starting to flourish on new concrete rock by the end of two months in a reef tank like this rock has been. The other tank-raised rocks are a year old. Coralline growth is still somewhat lacking, even with just a modest number of Mexican red leg blue spot hermit crabs present (C. digueti) which are cleaning the rock of alga, including coralline algae. In the past six months the number of hermits has decreased due to natural die-off and cannibalism. The pink, mauve and purple coralline algae is growing better now. In another test I performed, I put two small uncured concrete rocks in two HANDY Reef tanks with identical dosing and care. One tank had a very modest number of C. digueti hermit crabs in it and the other tank had none. The concrete rock in the tank with none of these hermits became almost totally covered in coralline on top and sides within just 2.5 months! The new concrete rock in the other tank, with C. digueti hermits, was still struggling to grow coralline algae, with very little coverage of coralline algae even after 6 months! The gray concrete changed colors, to a dominant gray-green look, like the picture above. The C. digueti hermits tend to keep new rocks cleaned of coralline algae the best. Another interesting observation was made. As expected and often observed elsewhere the coralline growing on the glass of the tank with C. digueti hermits was slightly less dense than in the tank without these hermits which had much more coralline already growing everywhere since there were no coralline "preditors" present. Remember, the more coralline in a tank the faster it spreads to new rocks and the glass. The coralline growing on the glass of the tank with the hermits eventually grew so thick that the hermits were finally able to climb the coralline covered glass and start stripping it too! All of this should come as no surprise since these hermits have been extensively observed to eat coralline algae in addition to their diet of snails and even coral polyps. They are omnivores of course and this should also be no surprise. In live rock farming it is critical to NOT include certain hermit crabs which eat coralline algae like candy. Claims to the contrary should be a red flag as to the honesty or knowledge of such claimants.
     
  4. seank

    seank Thread Starter

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    Cement Reef Rock Recipes.

    Try this good simple basic recipe to make some of the cheapest porous cement reef rock around. It costs only about 9 cents a lb using this recipe! Using a five gallon bucket, add 5 cups of common easy to find type I/II Portland cement from Home Depot, a hardware store or building supply store. Add 25 cups of crushed oyster shell from a farm feed store. Add six cups of water and mix very thoroughly with a small hand held flower gardening digger. Use rubber gloves to protect your hands from chemical burning due to extended exposure to the high pH of the fresh cement - this is like soaking your hands in supersaturated kalkwasser. Tip the bucket on a 45 degree angle and rotate or roll it to help tumble and mix the cement well. Use the gardening hand digger to mix the cement as you tumble it in the bucket. If the mix is too dry add a little more water (slowly). Karen Holt tries for a final mix with the consistency of cottage cheese. Others go a bit wetter than this, but not too slushy. Many sand substitutes can also be used to make your cement if desired. More on this later. You can get crushed oyster shell at the farm feed store since it is used as a very common chicken feed supplement. And that, my friend, is why THIS cement reef rock recipe is so "cheep, cheep, cheep"!
    Do not make the final product too runny or you will not be able to shape it into nice looking irregular shapes as well. An almost slushy mixture that will still stand up just a little and take some shape (just a bit) is just right for molding. In fact, James Wiseman advises that a wetter mix not only assures that the silicates in the cement mix get hydrated and bound, but a slightly wetter mix will produce more micro-pores or capillaries throughout the cement for better bacterial colonization inside the rocks. On the other hand, this can also weaken the cement just a bit, but usually not critically so. On the other hand, don't make it too dry or the cement will have too many large airspace gaps between sand or crushed oyster shell bits and it will then be weaker than the mix that is too wet. Maximum hardness is mostly reached after about a month of curing. Now, using rubber gloves, scoop handfuls of it into a bed of dampened sand (or substitute) for molding and shaping your cement into reef rocks.
    Beforehand, you need to prepare this waterproof box or container with sand, crushed coral, aragonite sand or crushed oyster shell. Large plastic garbage can lids work well too. Dig irregular and creative shaped molds in the slightly dampened sand. Karen Holt prefers using the crushed oyster shell cement with about a 1:4 ratio of cement to crushed oyster shell, and uses damp crushed oyster shell for the sand molding bed also. She makes some interesting and intricate shapes with the cement that she calls "lace Rock".
    Another alternative box for the sand molding bed that I have used is a large shallow Rubbermaid or Sterilite semi-clear plastic "under bed" storage container with a lid. The lid can be used to cover the container to keep the cement rocks from drying out while they set up for two days. I found some of these cheap containers for only $4.50 at Wal-Mart. They are made by Sterilite and are 2' long by 1.5' wide and about six inches deep. Just right for making four larger rocks or eight smaller ones at once.
    You can dig irregular holes in the damp sand molding bed to form "molds" for making creative and or artistic concrete rocks. I like to make holes through some rocks and mound up little heaps of cement on them in irregular shapes so that they look more natural. This is a great way to make arches, rocks with caves and long flattish rocks for creating dramatic overhangs and more caves in your reef aquarium. I like to make small cement rocks to place the large flatter rocks on in my reef aquariums. This keeps more of the sand substrate surface exposed in my reef aquariums. You can easily get up to 90% sand exposure this way. In HANDY Reefs with plenums and sand, I sink these hand made cement support or pedestal rocks down to the top screen just over an inch below the top of the sand. In Berlin style reefs with an inch or two of sand, sink these base support rocks or pedestal rocks down into the sand to the bottom of the tank for more solid support of the rocks above.
    Karen Holt made a beautiful hollow lacy thin cave rock for my wife by burrowing out a deep hole in the sand molding box (she used crushed oyster shell in place of sand). She fills the hole with a layer of cement by dropping or dribbling small clumpy amounts of the cement mixture onto the hollowed out molding bed so that the fresh cement clumps interconnect for the most part, but it isn't just one solid layer. It ends up looking just a little holey and porous. She then fills in over that with barely damp crushed oyster shell to help it keep its shape as the cement sets up. When it sets up for about two days you can use a stick to brush the sand (or oyster shell) out and off of the new rock. The branching rocks that she makes are quite striking also. The shape variations can be numerous and fun to experiment with.
    [​IMG]
     
  5. seank

    seank Thread Starter

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  6. seank

    seank Thread Starter

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  7. dallasg

    dallasg Moderator MASA Contributor

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    cool, i would love to dump some rocks in a rock pool or tidal pool then collect them after a few months....
     
  8. viper357

    viper357 Admin MASA Contributor

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    Geez Sean, you trying to get us sued for copyright infringement or what? :lol:

    Just a small paragraph and then a link to the full article will suffice, otherwise we'll have the internet police knocking on our door:p
     
  9. seank

    seank Thread Starter

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    Sorry Dean, but I stumbled upon so many websites with the exact content "pasted", I thought there would be no harm. If you think it is illegal, please delete
     
  10. dallasg

    dallasg Moderator MASA Contributor

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    why dont the guys near the coast make live rock?? easy way to make extra cash
     
  11. Warr7207

    Warr7207

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    Sean, have you made any rock yet ?
     
  12. Andreas

    Andreas

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    :lol:thanks for the links Sean
     
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