Ideal Water Parameters

Discussion in 'Water Parameters and Additives' started by viper357, 17 Jul 2009.

  1. viper357

    viper357 Admin MASA Contributor

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    Below are recommended water parameters that can be used as a guideline for general marine tanks.

    pH - 8.2 to 8.4
    Salinity - 30.5 to 35 (or 1.023 to 1.026 Specific Gravity (SG))

    Calcium - 380-420
    Alkalinity - 6 to 9 dKh (ideally 6.5 to 8.5 dKH) NSW levels
    Magnesium - 1300 to 1350
    Iodine - 0.04 to 0.06
    Strontium - 8ppm or 8mg/l (NSW levels)
    Potassium (K+) - 380-420
    Nitrite - 0
    Nitrate - less than 5
    Phosphate - less than 0.01
    Ammonia - 0
     
    Last edited: 31 Oct 2014
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  3. viper357

    viper357 Thread Starter Admin MASA Contributor

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    Calcium (Ca)

    All calcareous animals, especially corals need calcium and carbonates to grow and flourish. However the growth rate of corals depends mostly on the zooxanthellae (algae) that live symbiotically within them. These algae present the coral with precious carbohydrates of their own metabolism. As they photosynthesize, they use carbon dioxide from the water, which enables the coral to precipitate calcium carbonate in its skeleton.

    Natural sea water contains on average 400-410 ppm of calcium and is typically saturated at this level. It is important not to exceed 450 ppm, as super saturation can result in the calcium surplus precipitating out of the solution, taking desirable trace elements with it (commonly known as a snowstorm in a tank).

    Alkalinity (KH or dKH)

    Natural alkalinity and calcium concentrations are of special importance to ensure optimum growth and well-being of many invertebrates and calcareous algae in an aquarium. In many reef aquaria an increase of alkalinity and a decrease of calcium often occur.

    Magnesium (Mg)

    A sufficient supply of magnesium is as essential for the growth and well being of reef building coralline algae as calcium. It is one of the major constituents of seawater and is directly involved in algae photosynthesis, i.e. the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and light into organic compounds. Magnesium helps in the calcification process of invertebrates and is essential to balance KH and Ca.

    Iodine

    Of all the trace elements found in natural sea water, iodine is associated with the widest range of effects. Iodine prevents goitre as an important component of the thyroid hormone. It also is essential for the hardening of the chitinous shell of crustaceans. Corallinaceous red algae deposit iodine in surface structures and gorgonias deposit it in the axial skeleton.
    Experiments clearly show that idoine improves the adaptation to light and the colouring of anthozoa, especially of hard corals.

    Due to its unstable nature in solution, iodine should be added to a marine aquarium on a regular basis in its most effective form, as elementary I2. Iodine demand increases with aquarium population density.

    Strontium

    A sufficient supply of strontium and carbon dioxide is as essential for the growth and well-being of reef-building corals as calcium. Both elements are supplied to the corals with the help of the zooxanthellae (algae) that live symbiotically within them.

    Ammonia (NH3)

    Ammonia Nitrogen, the first toxic stage of the nitrogen cycle.

    Nitrite (NO2)

    An Unstable form of nitrogen and the second stage of the nitrogen cycle.

    Nitrate (NO3)

    The final part of the nitrogen cycle which denitrifies in anoxic conditions and turns into nitrogen gas.

    Phosphate (PO4)

    An unwanted nutrient found in tap water, fish foods etc that feeds slime and hair algaes.

    Most of the above information drawn from Tropic Marin
     
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  4. Prodigy

    Prodigy

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    Very good thread and info Viper!!!!!!!!!!!:thumbup:
     
  5. chikaboo

    chikaboo

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    We should add "Patience - Huge quantities" to these parameters;) But other than that very helpful info there - Thanx - Maybe we should get a printable version and literally "Sticky" the thing to our tanks!
     
  6. Tony

    Tony

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    Thanks for the info Dean
     
  7. werner5

    werner5

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    nice thread great info thanx :thumbup:
     
  8. Jaak

    Jaak

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    Nice info, thanks...
     
  9. THE ANIMAL

    THE ANIMAL

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    Nice thread viper thanks. I do dose all of the above, but what testkid do you recommend because I do not test for any of the trace elements but it dose make a difference.
     
  10. riyadhessa

    riyadhessa

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    Viper thanks for the info...
     
  11. Travis1

    Travis1 (wilsontravy)

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    thanks man.
     
  12. FransSny

    FransSny

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    Cool Thread & explanations Viper..Thanx
     
  13. mookz

    mookz

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    Wow thx man!!!!
     
  14. Pete

    Pete

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    Great thread for the newbies. So lets hope they read it carefully and take note. Thanks viper357
     
  15. Falcon

    Falcon

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    nice viper i remember all in my head but this is usefull for anyone not sure:thumbup:
     
    Last edited: 27 Jul 2009
  16. viper357

    viper357 Thread Starter Admin MASA Contributor

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    Thanks to Mekaeel as well who helped with some of the parameters.:)
     
  17. viper357

    viper357 Thread Starter Admin MASA Contributor

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    You really do need to test if you are dosing, bad things could happen if one of your parameters goes out of whack from overdosing. Good test kits seem to be Salifert, Tropic Marin, Seachem, Elos.
     
  18. Giepie

    Giepie

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    Ah, more info to add to my current "study material"... Very helpful info, Viper
     
  19. chikaboo

    chikaboo

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    Ok what about some windows for the temperature of the different tanks - reef,fish only , lsp, sps or mixed?
     
  20. viper357

    viper357 Thread Starter Admin MASA Contributor

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    25 to 27 Celsius, all round.

    One thing to remember with temp is that at lower levels (25) there is more oxygen in the water, as your tank heats up (28 and above) the oxygen levels drop and may become dangerously low if you have a heavily stocked tank.
     
  21. Garethmur

    Garethmur

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    Can an air stone be used in a marine tank and if so whats the max temp ones tanks can be sustained at before one needs to get a chiller? my tank with nothing but water is already hitting between 27 and 29 Celsius?
     
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